Who within the Pakistani Taliban targeted the teenage blogger?
A Tehrik-i-Taliban militia led by Maulana Fazlullah once controlled the Swat region, Malala's home. Pakistan's interior minister blames it for the assassination attempt and has announced a bounty of $1 million on the heads of those responsible.
In an odd twist, the Pakistani military ran Fazlullah's group out of Pakistan in 2009, forcing it to operate in Afghanistan, where the U.S. military can openly pursue it.
Why did they target Malala?
Malala wrote a blog entry exposing how Tehrik-i-Taliban target schools in her region that coincided with a decree in early 2009 forbidding girls from attending school. She later gave interviews on the topic to international media, including CNN.
Pakistan Taliban gunmen halted a van transporting her and other children home from school October 9, found Malala and shot her in the head and neck. When she survived her injuries, a TTP spokesman promised they'd finish the job the next time.
How did the attack on the schoolgirl affect Pakistani sentiment?
The shooting has prompted an unusually strong and united reaction of disgust and anger among many Pakistanis, analysts say.
"There is a groundswell of sympathy for her and also a very strong demand for the Pakistani state to do something about this issue," says Rumi. Discontent toward the Pakistani Taliban has spread.
There is a lot of support for the TTP's ideological goals among social conservatives, says Henman, but "revulsion" for their tactics.
Why is the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan so difficult to fight?
The Pakistani military has been at this for a long time, Rumi points out, and although there have been successes, the fight drags on in a cat-and-mouse game.
"Tribal areas have for decades now been a no-go area for the Pakistani state," Henman says, and its security forces have not been able to establish a consistent presence there. They are left launching sporadic missions and then withdrawing.
"The militants invariably get pushed out of their strongholds," says Henman. Then they come back when the military is gone. "It's an ink blotting exercise for the Pakistani government."
"The impetus from the Taliban-type of movement is the fight against the military," Rumi says. Fighting them is what caused them to form in the first place. De-escalation should be part of the solution.
"The timely exit of the U.S. forces from Afghanistan is so important not only for Afghanistan but for Pakistan as well," Rumi says.
The London analyst agrees. "Absolutely," says Henman, getting the United States out of Afghanistan "is the key part of their religious motivation."
Like their Afghan allies, the Pakistani Taliban believe it must protect Islamic lands from "infidel invaders." "Pakistan's tacit support for the U.S. efforts in Afghanistan" exacerbates the situation in Pakistan, Henman adds.
Is Pakistani intelligence in cahoots with militants?
Western officials have accused Pakistan's Inter-Service Intelligence agency of colluding with militant groups. Discovering Osama bin Laden within the country's borders in the city of Abbottabad, where there is a dominant military presence, increased suspicions of cooperation in the West.
"There have been a number of allegations by U.S. officials," Henman says. Adm. Mike Mullen in particular accused the ISI of funding and supporting militants. "The (Pakistani) government has explicitly denied it," Henman says, and he himself has seen "no concrete evidence."
The accusations involve groups operating in Kashmir, he says, and Lashkar-i-Taiba, operating within Afghanistan, but he finds it hard to believe the ISI would support the TTP, because they target the ISI and the military.
"You can never draw any kind of definite conclusion," he says, "but it seems unlikely."
How should the government respond?
Rumi recommends a "holistic strategy, which includes military, political and institutional solutions." In the end, the people of the tribal regions need to be reintegrated into Pakistani society.
Henman agrees. "If there is a solution to be found, it is unlikely to be purely military," he says. The TTP can survive massive military efforts and keep bouncing back.
He is not optimistic about Pakistan's government being able to negotiate peace with Tehrik-i-Taliban. The military may be faced with perpetually beating down the militants to contain their capabilities.
Rumi does not expect to see much of an increase in military action by Pakistan's government against the TTP.
"This is an election year," he says, "so no political party would want to be seen as being creating more destruction and war."