Republicans kept a lock on the U.S. House of Representatives in Tuesday's voting, a crucial victory after the party failed to wrest away the presidency from Barack Obama or the Senate from the Democrats.
The GOP led with 233 seats to the Democrats' 194 seats, according to CNN projections, as votes were still being tallied Wednesday. Eight seats were undecided.
The Republicans controlled the House by 242-193 going into the election. There were five vacancies in the 435-seat chamber when voters went to the polls -- three seats that had been held by the Democrats and two by the GOP.
House Speaker John Boehner of Ohio described the result as an opportunity for Republicans and Democrats to work together.
"If there is a mandate, it is a mandate for both parties to find common ground and take steps together to help our economy grow and create jobs, which is critical to solving our debt," Boehner said after Obama's re-election.
The Republican leader underscored the main theme of the anti-tax tea party, the upstart movement that helped the Republicans capture the House in 2010. He also laid down a marker for negotiations about the so-called fiscal cliff.
That's the end-of-the-year deadline that looms before huge spending cuts kick in and tax breaks begin to expire, including the Bush-era tax cuts. The fiscal cliff includes automatic, across-the-board spending cuts set to trigger at the beginning of next year if Capitol Hill fails to work out a deficit-reduction plan.
Such threatened cuts could affect many walks of life, including response to emergencies, air traffic control, security, after-school programs and education grants, according to a recent report mandated by Congress.
"With this vote, the American people have also made clear that there is no mandate for raising tax rates," Boehner said.
Two years ago, the tea party movement helped Republicans seize control of the House. This election, House Republican candidates were still stressing the core issues that the movement pushed in 2010 -- less government and a focus on cutting federal spending and the deficit -- but GOP candidates were "not wearing the tea party label on their sleeves," one senior GOP strategist working on House races said recently..
Democrats, bolstered by polling that shows that many voters blame the tea party for gridlock in Washington, had tried to pin the label on virtually every Republican incumbent and challenger.
Voters gave a heave-ho Tuesday to a significant number of tea party-backed GOP freshmen who had helped their party secure control two years ago. They include Reps. Joe Walsh and Bobby Schilling of Illinois, Ann Marie Buerkle and Nan Hayworth of New York and Francisco Canseco of Texas.
House Republicans lost in states that Obama won handily, including four GOP seats in Illinois. At least five Democratic incumbents also lost -- Rep. Ben Chandler of Kentucky, Rep. Larry Kissell of North Carolina, Rep. Leonard Boswell of Iowa, Rep. Kathy Hochul of New York and Rep. Mark Critz of Pennsylvania.
Democratic winners included Rep. John Barrow of Georgia, a moderate Democrat; Rep. Jesse Jackson Jr., who has been receiving treatment for a mood disorder; and Joseph Kennedy III of Massachusetts.
Rep. John Dingell of Michigan, the longest-serving member in the House, won re-election. Other longtime representatives Charles Rangel of New York and John Conyers of Michigan also won. All three are Democrats.
Along with Boehner, prominent Republicans retained their seats, CNN projected.
Rep. Paul Ryan, the GOP vice presidential candidate, was re-elected to his House seat from Wisconsin. Rep. Eric Cantor retained his seat in Virginia. Rep. Michele Bachmann of Minnesota -- who unsuccessfully ran for president in the 2012 election cycle -- was re-elected in a hard-fought race.
Democrats would have needed to pick up 25 Republican seats to regain control.
Democratic leader Nancy Pelosi and other Democrats noted that 58 Republicans represent districts won by Obama in 2008 and pointed to those wins as a template for a successful election night, but shortly after 9 p.m. Tuesday, CNN projected that they would not achieve their goal. Pelosi retained her seat.
With the bulk of this cycle's competitive races concentrated in districts represented by more moderate members of each party, the outcome of this election could mean an even more polarized House in 2013.
A recent study by the Cook Political Report found that the number of swing districts in the nation dropped from 164 to 99 over the last 14 years. That decline has widened the ideological divide between the two parties.
"There's a remarkable reduction in the number of members who have an incentive to compromise," said David Wasserman, who analyzes House races for Cook.
The House will return next week for a lame-duck session until new members take office in January, facing major unfinished business, including how to avoid the fiscal cliff.
House Republicans will hold leadership elections next Wednesday, with Boehner and other top leaders expected to stay in their posts. House Democrats have postponed their leadership elections until after Thanksgiving.
Key House race snapshots
Compiled by Adam Levy and Robert Yoon, CNN Political Research
Arizona 1: Jonathan Paton (R) vs. former Rep. Ann Kirkpatrick (D)
Open Republican-held seat
This redrawn district covers most of northern and eastern Arizona. The Democratic nominee was Ann Kirkpatrick, who was elected in 2008 and was swept out in the Republican wave two years later. The Republican nominee was Jonathan Paton, a former state senator. Kirkpatrick had a sizable fund-raising advantage over Paton, but national Republicans invested heavily to help close the gap in TV ads. This seat was a top priority for both parties. Kirkpatrick was the projected winner.
Arizona 2: Rep. Ron Barber (D) vs. Martha McSally (R)
Democrat Gabrielle Giffords would have run here had she sought a fourth term. Giffords is recovering after being shot in January 2011 in Arizona. Her district director, Ron Barber, who was also wounded, won a special election to fill her seat when she resigned last January. His opponent was Republican Martha McSally, a retired Air Force colonel and combat pilot. Barber had a financial advantage at the start of October, though McSally remained competitive on the airwaves. Still, Barber was expected to win. A winner has not been yet projected.
Arizona 9: Kyrsten Sinema (D) vs. Vernon Parker (R)
The battle for this new district pitted Democrat Kyrsten Sinema, a former state senator, against Republican Vernon Parker, the former mayor of Paradise Valley. Both parties invested heavily in the race, though a Democratic super PAC tipped the TV ad war balance of power slightly in the Democrat's favor. A winner has not been yet projected.
California 30: Rep. Brad Sherman (D) vs. Rep. Howard Berman (D)
One of the nastiest House races of 2012 was between two incumbent Democrats due to redistricting and the state's new primary system, in which the top two finishers advanced to the general election. Rep. Brad Sherman had at least one advantage over Rep. Howard Berman: He represented more of the redrawn Sherman Oaks-area district. Sherman won the primary with 42.4% of the vote compared with 32.4% for Berman. The remaining votes were split among five candidates. The race hit a nasty patch last month, when the two men shouted at each other at a public forum. Sherman is the projected winner.
California 31: Rep. Gary Miller (R) vs. Bob Dutton (R)
Seven-term incumbent Rep. Gary Miller faced a tough challenge from a fellow Republican in a race also determined by California's new primary system. Miller's opponent was Bob Dutton, a state senator and businessman. Miller represented none of this redrawn district, while Dutton represented much of it in the state legislature. Miller is the projected winner.
California 36: Rep. Mary Bono Mack (R) vs. Raul Ruiz (D)