Oden, 26, was charged in Marion Superior Court in Indianapolis with one count of battery resulting in serious bodily injury, a Level 5 felony, as well as misdemeanor charges of domestic battery and battery resulting in bodily injury. The felony offense carries a penalty of one to six years behind bars.
Oden was arrested shortly after 3:30 a.m. Thursday in his mother's Lawrence home, according to a Lawrence (Ind.) Police Department report.
He is scheduled to appear in court for his initial hearing Tuesday.
Oden, a 7-foot center, played one season at Ohio State and helped lead the Buckeyes to the national championship game. He was the No. 1 overall pick in the 2007 NBA Draft, one spot ahead of Kevin Durant, who was drafted by the Seattle Supersonics.
Currently a free agent, Oden has played just three seasons, dealing with chronic knee issues that prompted microfracture knee surgery.
He was out of the NBA in 2013 but attempted a comeback last season with the Miami Heat, playing in 23 games. In three total seasons, Oden averaged 8.0 points and 6.2 rebounds.